Battery is the back bone of your solar energy system which without it you cannot store energy for your power supply, you may only have power when the sun is shining .
We will be discussing only 4 types of batteries though there are many other types but this are the ones that can be used on our solar energy system
RV or Marine type deep cycle batteries are basically for boats & campers and are suitable for only very small systems. They can be used but do not really have the capacity for continuous service with many charge/discharge cycles for many years. Regular or Car type batteries should not be used at all because they cannot be discharged very much without internal damage. A very popular battery for small systems is the Golf Cart battery. They are somewhat more expensive than deep cycle recreational batteries but are probably the least expensive choice for a small system on a budget. Industrial strength: Flooded, Gel, and AGM sealed batteries The next 3 types are the heavier industrial type batteries. They are all also considered Deep Cycle and are usually Lead Acid types with much thicker internal plates that can withstand many deep discharge cycles. These next 3 are all designed for alternative energy systems.
2) Flooded type of batteries; These are Lead acid batteries that have caps to add water. Many manufacturers make these types for Solar Energy use. They are reasonably priced and work well for many years. All flooded batteries release gas when charged and should not be used indoors. If installed in an enclosure, a venting system should be used to vent out the gases which can be explosive.
3)Gel Type of batteries; Not to be confused with maintenance free batteries, sealed gel batteries have no vents and will not release gas during the charging process like flooded batteries do. Venting is therefore not required and they can be used indoors. This is a big advantage because it allows the batteries to maintain a more constant temperature and perform better.
4) AGM type of batteries; Absorbed Glass Mat batteries are in my opinion the best available for Solar Power use. A woven glass mat is used between the plates to hold the electrolyte. They are leak/spill proof, do not out gas when charging, and have superior performance. They have all the advantages of the sealed gel types and are higher quality, maintain voltage better, self discharge slower, and last longer. The VRLA Battery is an excellent example of AGM batteries. They are more expensive, but you usually get what you pay for. You will find this type of battery used in airplanes, hospitals, and remote telephone/cell tower installations.